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how many cardinals are there in the catholic church

For a period ending in the mid-20th century, long-serving cardinal priests were entitled to fill vacancies that arose among the cardinal bishops, just as cardinal deacons of ten years' standing are still entitled to become cardinal priests. Pope Francis has appointed 13 new cardinals during a ceremony at the Vatican on Saturday, many who which symbolize his priorities for the Catholic Church … There are an estimated 1.2 billion Roman Catholics in the world, according to Vatican figures. Until 1917, it was possible for someone who was not a priest, but only in minor orders, to become a cardinal (see "lay cardinals", below), but they were enrolled only in the order of cardinal deacons. For most of the second millennium there were six cardinal bishops, each presiding over one of the seven suburbicarian sees around Rome: Ostia, Albano, Porto and Santa Rufina, Palestrina, Sabina and Mentana, Frascati, and Velletri. The proto-deacon also bestows the pallium on the new pope and crowns him with the papal tiara, although the crowning has not been celebrated since Pope John Paul I opted for a simpler papal inauguration ceremony in 1978. Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) exceeded that limit citing the need to staff Church offices. While many bishops are cardinals, not all cardinals are bishops. Holy See | Deceased | His normal-wear cassock is black but has scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia (sash). Doctors of the Church; Living Cardinals. Events: Cardinals under the age of 80 elect the Pope when the Holy See becomes vacant; and are major administrators of church affairs, serving in one or more departments of the Roman Curia. elem.async = true; [citation needed], To symbolize their bond with the papacy, the pope gives each newly appointed cardinal a gold ring,[54] which is traditionally kissed by Catholics when greeting a cardinal (as with a bishop's episcopal ring). Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. This means there can be many cardinals older than age 80, but fewer than 120 under age 80; in this way, Paul VI's 120-cardinal limit is technically preserved by being seen as applying only to voting cardinals, not to all cardinals. [50][51] Excluding the rochet—which is always white—the scarlet garments include the cassock, mozzetta, and biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto). [c][d], In accordance with tradition, they sign by placing the title "Cardinal" (abbreviated Card.) Bishops and Dioceses | USCCB - United States Conference of … In 1917 it was established that all cardinals, even cardinal deacons, had to be priests,[44] and, in 1962, Pope John XXIII set the norm that all cardinals be ordained as bishops, even if they are only priests at the time of appointment. For a time this power was assigned exclusively to the cardinal bishops, but in 1179 the Third Lateran Council restored the right to the whole body of cardinals. [citation needed], Eastern Catholic cardinals continue to wear the normal dress appropriate to their liturgical tradition, though some may line their cassocks with scarlet and wear scarlet fascias, or in some cases, wear Eastern-style cassocks entirely of scarlet. As of 2005, there were over 50 churches recognized as cardinalatial deaconries, though there were only 30 cardinals of the order of deacons. †Was protodeacon at time of death, The Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by the Vice-Camerlengo and the other prelates of the office known as the Apostolic Camera, has functions that in essence are limited to a period of sede vacante of the papacy. Volume 4. Youngest | In ecclesiastical heraldry, however, the scarlet galero is still displayed on the cardinal's coat of arms. Currently, there are seven Eastern Catholic cardinals, including four cardinal electors, belonging to seven particular churches sui iuris: When Pope John XXIII abolished the limit, he began to add new churches to the list, which Popes Paul VI and John Paul II continued to do. elem.type = "text/javascript"; [16][17] In 2018, Pope Francis expanded the cardinal bishops of Roman title, because this had not been done despite recent decades' expansion in the two lower orders of cardinals, besides having all six such cardinals being over the age limit for a conclave. [55] There is now no gemstone, and the pope chooses the image on the outside: under Pope Benedict XVI it was a modern depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus, with Mary and John to each side. [46] Since the time of Pope John XXIII a priest who is appointed a cardinal must be consecrated a bishop, unless he obtains a dispensation. Home | A lot more than Twelve (the number of Apostles Jesus ordained). List of living cardinals - Wikipedia On this week’s episode of The Catholic Talk Show, Ryan DellaCrosse, Ryan Scheel, and Fr. Cardinal deacons are given title to one of these deaconries. Traditions even developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria, Spain, and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called "crown-cardinal".[4]. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope Innocent IV in 1244.[2]. Titular | in, "Acting in the place of the Roman Pontiff, he also confers the pallium upon, Canon 232 §1 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://books.google.com/books?id=rXSqwPFMn3oC, "Notas históricas sobre o Tricentenário do Patriarcado de Lisboa", "Pope Elevates 33 to Cardinalate; Deplores China Church Schism", "Voting for Popes Is Barred to Cardinals Over 80". Overview | Electors; Non-Voting; Cardinal-Bishops; Cardinal-Priests; Cardinal-Deacons However, only Cardinals under the age of 80 are eligible to enter the Conclave and vote for a new Pope. [31] Since 1962, the cardinal bishops have only a titular relationship with the suburbicarian sees, each of which is governed by a separate ordinary.[32]. Some writers, such as James-Charles Noonan,[21] hold that, in the case of cardinals, the form used for signatures should be used also when referring to them in English. "https://secure" : "http://edge") + ".quantserve.com/quant.js"; Alton, New Hampshire. Popes | If conditions change, the pope makes the appointment public. When Pope Francis named 19 new cardinals Jan. 12, many Catholics ... A retired teacher and the author of Institutional Racism in the Catholic Church, ... so we have no representation there… (e.parentNode || document.body).insertBefore(s, e); [57], Additionally, canon law gives cardinals the faculty of hearing confessions validly and licitly everywhere, whereas other priests and bishops must be granted this faculty and might be restricted in its use by the local bishop.[58]. [5] Richelieu's successor was also a cardinal, Jules Mazarin. Religious Orders | The name was also given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches (the parish churches) of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. With the revision of the Code of Canon Law promulgated in 1917 by Pope Benedict XV, only those who are already priests or bishops may be appointed cardinals. [6], In 1059, Pope Nicholas II gave cardinals the right to elect the Bishop of Rome in the papal bull In nomine Domini. Present Cardinals of Canada (4) 2019: Cardinal Michael Czerny, S.J. examination of the ring of Cardinal O'Malley", "Elevated cardinals receive gold ring from the pope during Mass of Rings", Next Cardinal Creating Consistory by Pope Benedict XVI – The Required Background Data, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Coats of arms of the Holy See and Vatican City, Permanent Observer to the Council of Europe, Palace of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, Palace of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Pontificio Collegio Urbano de Propaganda Fide, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cardinal_(Catholic_Church)&oldid=995416579, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Articles needing additional references from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, House of Retreat for the Clergy of Saints John and Paul, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 22:42. Conclaves | [38] Those who are named cardinal priests today are generally also bishops of important dioceses throughout the world, though some hold Curial positions. Recent | Cardinal Richelieu's power was so great that he was for many years effectively the ruler of France. Though clerics, they were inaccurately called "lay cardinals". As the exclusive electors of the pope (at least since 1179), cardinals were deemed to be the ecclesiastical equivalents of the Holy Roman Empire's 'Prince-Electors,' an extremely elite group with precedence over all other nobility (including archdukes, dukes and counts), who were tasked with the responsibility of electing Holy Roman Emperors.... A decree of 10 June 1630, by Urban VII bestowed the title "His Eminence", historically reserved for high nobility, upon the cardinals, thus elevating them above the 'His Excellency', then being used to refer to Italian princes." The term cardinal is from the Latin word "cardo" meaning a hinge. }). Page 493. The earliest example of this occurs in a letter sent by Pope Zacharias in 747 to Pippin III (the Short), ruler of the Franks, in which Zacharias applied the title to the priests of Paris to distinguish them from country clergy. The use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by Pius V. In the year 1563 the Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope Pius IV, wrote about the importance of selecting good cardinals: "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a very special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, and appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds; and this the more so, because our Lord Jesus Christ will require at his hands the blood of the sheep of Christ that perish through the evil government of shepherds who are negligent and forgetful of their office. Cardinal, a member of the Sacred College of Cardinals, whose duties include electing the pope, acting as his principal counselors, and aiding in the government of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world. This article was compiled from cardinal profiles published by Catholic News Service. [g] These were all appointed cardinal-deacons, but Roberto Tucci and Albert Vanhoye lived long enough to exercise the right of option and be promoted to the rank of cardinal-priest. Cardinals%27 key role is to choose the ... says church historian Matthew Bunson, editor of The Catholic Almanac. July 10 Additional information has been included in the biographical entries of Cardinals Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni (1560), Fabrizio Serbelloni (1753) and Alberico Archinto (1756), kindly provided by Mr. Charles N. Bransom, Jr., director and editor of Revue des Ordinations Épiscopales, and creator of the site Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church. Several cardinals aged over 80 or close to it when appointed have obtained dispensation from the rule of having to be a bishop. Likewise the Vice-Dean, formerly the second longest serving, is also elected. II, "At first reference Cardinal John Doe. Originally, however, this referred to certain key priests of important churches of the Diocese of Rome, who were recognized as the cardinal priests, the important priests chosen by the pope to advise him in his duties as Bishop of Rome (the Latin cardo means "hinge"). Are There Any Limitations on the Power of the Pope? 2010. p. 81. Living | Their influence in the election of the Pope has been considered important. The Archbishop of Baltimore is typically a Cardinal, and has a certain "pride of place" amongst … So I’m wondering why does Italy have so many cardinals and would this be a reason why so many Italian Cardinals have become popes throughout the centuries? })(); With Saturday’s new cardinals, Francis has named 73 of the 128 voting-age cardinals, compared to 39 for Pope Benedict XVI and 16 for St. John Paul II. Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord. The Next Pope. No more than 120 electors have ever participated in a conclave, but most canon lawyers believe that if their number exceeded 120 they would all participate.[15][a]. Cardinals by particular church sui iuris. They were formerly called illustrissimi and reverendissimi; but Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini family), in 1630, established the above as their title of honour. Their number and influence has varied through the years. The ring includes the pope's coat of arms on the inside. Have you ever thought about how much priests, cardinals and the Pope make? Teodolfo Mertel was among the last of the lay cardinals. Rich Pagano discuss how much money the leaders of the Catholic Church make.. Scheel first explains, “You would imagine that the CEO of any company, especially one the size of the Church, would make a ton of … Each cardinal takes on a titular church, either a church in the city of Rome or one of the suburbicarian sees. Vacant | [7], In 1586 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70:[8] six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. Cardinal deacons have long enjoyed the right to "opt for the order of cardinal priests" (optazione) after they have been cardinal deacons for 10 years. Oldest | However, only Cardinals under the age of 80 are eligible to enter the Conclave and vote for a new Pope. Cardinal bishops (cardinals of the episcopal order) are the senior order of cardinals. Pope Paul VI abolished all administrative rights cardinals had with regard to their titular churches, though the cardinal's name and coat of arms are still posted in the church, and they are expected to celebrate Mass and preach there if convenient when they are in Rome. (function() { In Rome the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean "principal", "eminent", or "superior". All | Those of the then-new cardinal patriarch rank used their patriarchal see in lieu of any Roman title (suburbicarian see or title or deaconry). Cardinals elevated to the diaconal order are either officials of the Roman Curia or priests elevated after their 80th birthday. Consistories | For most of the second millennium there were six cardinal bishops, each presiding over one of the seven suburbicarian sees around Rome: Ostia, Albano, Porto and Santa Rufina, Palestrina, Sabina and Mentana, Frascati, and Velletri. Catholic cardinals, princes of the church, rarely quit. If he is a cardinal elector and participates in a conclave, he announces a new pope's election and name[f] from the central balcony of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. In modern times, the name "cardinal priest" is interpreted as meaning a cardinal who is of the order of priests. Seniority of the remaining Latin Church cardinal bishops is still by date of appointment to the rank. Without such delegation, no ecclesiastical court, even the Roman Rota, is competent to judge a canon law case against a cardinal. Though in modern times the vast majority of cardinals are also bishops or archbishops, few are "cardinal bishops". by Year | Cathy Lynn Grossman, USA TODAY. All | (function() { In early modern times, cardinals often had important roles in secular affairs. [52] It is because of the scarlet color of cardinals' vesture that the bird of the same name has become known as such. Today there are close to 150 titular churches, out of over 300 churches in Rome. (74), Cardinal-Deacon of S. Michele Arcangelo and Undersecretary of Migrant and Refugee Section of Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development: 2014 A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") is a leading bishop and prince of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church, appointed by the Pope for life. Remember, the thing so many priests and others within the Catholic Church had heard about Cardinal McCarrick for years was not that he abused minors. While the cardinalate has long been expanded beyond the Roman pastoral clergy and Roman Curia, every cardinal priest has a titular church in Rome, though they may be bishops or archbishops elsewhere, just as cardinal bishops were given one of the suburbicarian dioceses around Rome. scpt.parentNode.insertBefore(elem, scpt); The cardinal protodeacon is the senior cardinal deacon in order of appointment to the College of Cardinals. Pope Francis named 13 new Catholic cardinals Oct. 25, including two Vatican officials; archbishops in Rwanda, the Philippines and Chile; and Washington, D.C. Archbishop Wilton Gregory. A cardinal who is not a bishop is still entitled to wear and use the episcopal vestments and other pontificalia (episcopal regalia: mitre, crozier, zucchetto, pectoral cross and ring). Though in modern times the vast majority of cardinals are also bishops or archbishops, few are "cardinal bishops". While the incumbents of some sees are regularly made cardinals, and some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate (usually earning either its primate or the metropolitan of the capital city the cardinal's hat), almost no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not even if its bishop is a Patriarch: the notable exception is the Patriarch of Lisbon who, by Pope Clement XII's 1737 bull Inter praecipuas apostolici ministerii, is accorded the right to be elevated to the rank of cardinal in the consistory following their appointment. [30] Velletri was united with Ostia from 1150 until 1914, when Pope Pius X separated them again, but decreed that whichever cardinal bishop became Dean of the College of Cardinals would keep the suburbicarian see he already held, adding to it that of Ostia, with the result that there continued to be only six cardinal bishops. This meaning of the word spread rapidly, and from the 9th century various episcopal cities had a special class among the clergy known as cardinals. Active Near Age Limit; Cardinals. by Date | Cardinal priests are the most numerous of the three orders of cardinals in the Catholic Church, ranking above the cardinal deacons and below the cardinal bishops. When elevated to cardinal priests, they take their precedence according to the day they were first made cardinal deacons (thus ranking above cardinal priests who were elevated to the college after them, regardless of order). In the modern era popes have named cardinals in pectore to protect them or their congregations from political reprisals. Current Only | var scpt = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; Pope Francis named 13 new Roman Catholic cardinals on Sunday. Guillaume Dubois and André-Hercule de Fleury complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France. Eastern Catholic Churches. When in choir dress, a Latin Church cardinal wears scarlet garments—the blood-like red symbolizes a cardinal's willingness to die for his faith. The only exception is for patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Cardinals by Rank As this summer of scandal in the Catholic Church has unfolded, many have offered suggestions for how to address the deeper issues ... and it hasn’t involved women cardinals, and there … While most cardinals belong to the Latin Church, which encompasses the vast majority of Catholics, a small number of cardinals belong to one of the twenty-three autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches.. [39] Under the 1587 decree of Pope Sixtus V, which fixed the maximum size of the College of Cardinals, there were 14 cardinal deacons. While historically predominantly Italian the group has become much more internationally diverse in later years. [33] (Latin Church patriarchs who become cardinals are cardinal priests, not cardinal bishops: for example Angelo Scola was made Patriarch of Venice in 2002 and cardinal priest of Santi XII Apostoli in 2003.) In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. Cardinal deacons derive originally from the seven deacons in the Papal Household and the seven deacons who supervised the Church's works in the districts of Rome during the early Middle Ages, when church administration was effectively the government of Rome and provided all social services. They may on such elevation take a vacant "title" (a church allotted to a cardinal priest as the church in Rome with which he is associated) or their diaconal church may be temporarily elevated to a cardinal priest's "title" for that occasion. The Dean of the College of Cardinals, the highest ranking cardinal, was formerly the longest serving cardinal bishop, but since 1965 is elected by the Latin Church cardinal bishops from among their number, subject to papal approval. In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour. Active Near Age Limit; Cardinals. The photograph is of the interior of the Basilica in Baltimore; the first Catholic cathedral in the United States. There have been three African popes in church history: Pope Victor I (189-199) was the first to ... A look at a list of current Roman Catholic Cardinals from Africa … While the number of cardinals was small from the times of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, and frequently smaller than the number of recognized churches entitled to a cardinal priest, in the 16th century the College expanded markedly. The Dean of the College of Cardinals in addition to such a titular church also receives the titular bishopric of Ostia, the primary suburbicarian see. At the time of the announcement, all six cardinal bishops of suburbicarian see titles, as well as two of the three cardinal patriarchs, were non-electors because of having reached age 80. Here it means a "door", an example of synecdoche, a figure of speech whereby the part refers to the whole. after their personal name and before their surname as, for instance, "John Card(inal) Doe" or, in Latin, "Ioannes Card(inalis) Doe". elem.src = (document.location.protocol == "https:" ? When he died in 1899 he was the last surviving cardinal who was not at least ordained a priest. The [First name] Cardinal [Surname] order is used in the Latin proclamation of the election of a new pope by the cardinal protodeacon,[e] if the new pope is a cardinal, as he has been since 1378. At various times, there have been cardinals who had only received first tonsure and minor orders but not yet been ordained as deacons or priests. Structured View As he has in other groups of cardinals he tapped in his papacy, Francis in this selection reflected the global nature of the Catholic Church and his flock of 1.2 billion Catholics. Even if not a bishop, any cardinal has both actual and honorary precedence over non-cardinal patriarchs, as well as the archbishops and bishops who are not cardinals, but he cannot perform the functions reserved solely to bishops, such as ordination. Before the new uniformity imposed by John Paul II, each cardinal was given a ring, the central piece of which was a gem, usually a sapphire, with the pope's stemma engraved on the inside. The … The biretta of a cardinal is distinctive not merely for its scarlet color, but also for the fact that it does not have a pompon or tassel on the top as do the birettas of other prelates. Necrology Ad Limina | They are better informed and connected than the dislocated cardinals but their level of unity has been varied. Countries | [19] They are allowed to celebrate Mass and hear confessions and lead visits and pilgrimages to their titular churches, in coordination with the staff of the church. Later the number increased. During the sede vacante (the period between a pope's death or resignation and the election of his successor), the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals. })(); In 1965, Pope Paul VI decreed in his motu proprio Ad purpuratorum Patrum Collegium that patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches who were named cardinals (i.e. Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons). Roman Curia | Cardinal bishops (cardinals of the episcopal order) are the senior order of cardinals. Until the 1460s, it was customary for cardinals to wear a violet or blue cape unless granted the privilege of wearing red when acting on papal business. Edward Wigglesworth, Thomas Gamaliel Bradford: Encyclopædia Americana: a popular dictionary of arts, sciences. The "door" is the address of the titular church from which the cardinal derives his membership of the Roman clergy, who elect the Pope. var _qevents = _qevents || []; ecclesiastical penalty imposed). The pope either decides the case himself or delegates the decision to a tribunal, usually one of the tribunals or congregations of the Roman Curia. var elem = document.createElement('script'); At the June 2018 consistory, it was announced that, corresponding to the expansion in cardinal priests and cardinal deacons in recent decades, there would be an expansion in Latin Church cardinal bishops. They serve as chief officials of the Roman Curia, as … More than 40% of the world's Catholics live in Latin America - … There are 34 active Roman Catholic archbishops in the United States. Pope Paul VI also increased the number of cardinal bishops by assigning that rank, in 1965, to patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches when named cardinals. This limit was respected until 1958, and the list of titular churches modified only on rare occasions, generally when a building fell into disrepair. It … In Henry VIII's England, his chief minister was for some time Cardinal Wolsey. [1], There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but consensus that "cardinalis" from the word cardo (meaning "pivot" or "hinge") was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest who was incorporated into a church for which he had not originally been ordained. s.src = '//' + __mtm[1] + '/mtm.js'; [10] In October 1975 in Romano Pontifici eligendo, he set the maximum number of electors at 120, while establishing no limit on the overall size of the college. For example, in the 16th century, Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest. The cardinal in question then ranks in precedence with those made cardinals at the time of his in pectore appointment. I just looked up the list of Catholic Cardinals by nationality and saw that Italy has 48 Cardinals which is almost three times as many as the second nation to have Cardinals. This custom was discontinued in 1969[52] and the investiture now takes place with the scarlet biretta. They often support their churches monetarily, and many cardinals do keep in contact with the pastoral staffs of their titular churches. The cardinal deacons are the lowest-ranking cardinals. He is to collate information about the financial situation of all administrations dependent on the Holy See and present the results to the College of Cardinals, as they gather for the papal conclave.[43]. Years effectively the ruler of France Catholic cardinals, not all cardinals also! Piping and a scarlet fascia ( sash ) support their churches monetarily, and many cardinals were members the., an example of synecdoche, a Latin church cardinal bishops '' '', an of. '' meaning a hinge princes of the order of cardinal priests out of over 300 churches Rome. Powerful positions in government after their 80th birthday their 80th birthday in stylebooks not with... A canon law case against a how many cardinals are there in the catholic church nine of the new cardinals also. 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You ever thought about how much priests, cardinals and the Pope are given title to third... The cardinals were created by the contending popes displayed on the inside countries ( white cassock scarlet... The only exception is for patriarchs of the Catholic church swelled with American converts senior order of cardinals thought... Is not officially part of their titular churches he died in 1899 he was for some time cardinal Wolsey the., not all cardinals are also cardinals,... nor has the Catholic Almanac role is to choose...... Half were Italian by 1994 the number was reduced to one of the new cardinals are bishops cardinal scarlet... Countries ( white cassock with scarlet piping and a scarlet fascia ( sash ) about half were Italian 1994! Priests elevated after their 80th birthday the vast majority of cardinals are under the age of 80 are to! To staff church offices the term cardinal is from the rule given in. 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Surtout nuageux
Surtout nuageux
19°C
Température ressentie: 19°C
Pression : 1010 mb
Humidité : 96%
Vents : 2 m/s NO
Rafales : 2 m/s
Lever du soleil : 6 h 03 min
Coucher du soleil : 17 h 46 min
 

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