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Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Similarly, Sabah Softwoods was established in Sabah in 1974 to plant Pinus caribaea for the pulp industry, but slow growth and seed supply problems led to replacement of the pines with A. mangium, F. moluccana, G. arborea and Eucalyptus deglupta. Internet document: www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm. & Sim, H.C. 1994. www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm, www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm, www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/fdw.fplntn.htm. Native to northern Queensland, Australia, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. The disease is caused by a species of the rust Uromycladium, most likely U. tepperianum. Wood suitable for furniture, cabinetmaking, light structural works, particleboard and veneer. Spores of the fungus are wind dispersed and it would appear that the disease is spreading to Malaysia from neighbouring Kalimantan. The average rate of disease development was about 0.3% per month, and average time from infection to tree death was conservatively estimated at around 1 year. Trees with more than four dead/missing neighbours had a >50% chance of being dead by the following monitoring. Root rot centres in plantations may be recognized by the appearance of slowly enlarging patches of dead and dying trees (see Old et al., 2000). plantations, little is known of the potentially damaging diseases of A. mangium and their control. However, A. mangium root rot could threaten the continued existence and expansion of these plantations, and the threat of phyllode rust also needs to be carefully monitored. A. mangium is able to revegetate marginal and degraded areas, thereby improving the site for subsequent colonization by other plant and animal species. Most damage occurs on new foliage in the upper crown. Preliminary studies have shown that leaf diseases, root rot, pink disease and heart rot occur in A. mangium plantations in Malaysia (Gibson 1981, Khamis 1982, Lee 1985, Kugan 1987, Teng l988). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Therefore, there is always a need for vigilance and regular disease monitoring and/or surveys so that any new diseases may be rapidly detected and suitable management or control measures implemented without delay. Damage/symptoms: First and second instar larvae feed on soft, immature foliage, making small holes in the leaves. The rapid emergence of Acacia mangium as the key industrial plantation species in Indonesia has been followed by the equally rapid emergence of red root rot (Ganoderma philippii) as its potential nemesis.As a consequence, and on severely affected mineral soils in equatorial tropical environments in particular, A.mangium may no longer be capable of producing commercial yields after … This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids, or are suspected of containing such alkaloids due to being psychoactive.The presence and constitution of alkaloids in nature can be highly variable, due to environmental and genetic factors. In late 1992, an epidemic outbreak of gall rust was reported from F. moluccana plantations in Sipitang on the west coast of Sabah. In 2000, Sabah had approximately 75 000 ha of A. mangium plantations (Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah, 2004) and Sarawak about 4 000 ha (Sarawak Forest Department, 2004). Krishnapillay, personal communication). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1: 170-177. Paths to sustainable wood supply to the pulp and paper industry in Indonesia after diseases have forced a change of species from acacia to eucalypts. A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. Eusebio, M.A., Sinohin, V.O. Paraserianthes falcataria), also called albizia, is a fast-growing native of the Moluccas, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Beehives in Acacia mangium plantations produce up to 110 kg or 242.5 lbs of honey per hive per year, which is important for local economies and employment. In the 1970s exotic pines (Pinus spp.) Subsequent plantings in 1993 were also affected and the plantations did not recover, nor was the disease eradicated (E. Gan, personal communication). Root rot is the most important disease affectingAcacia trees,includingA. Productivity and sustainability of tropical forest plantations greatly rely on regulation of ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling, i.e., the link between plant growth, nutrient availability, and the microbial community structure. However, as the plantations grew they turned out to be prone to a number of diseases. Ivory, M.H. The Sabah Forestry Development Authority (SAFODA) was established in 1976 for the rehabilitation of degraded areas and planted mainly A. mangium. It is mainly planted in large monocultures for pulpwood in South-East Asia. Most acacia plants (Acacia spp.) Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during second and third rotations. in Sabah. Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Poster presented at the International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2003, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2-7 February. Species‐specific PCR for rapid identification of Ganoderma philippii and Ganoderma mastoporum from Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia. A red root rot disease associated with Ganoderma philippii is by far the greatest threat to mature A. mangium plantations. Indeed, existing A. mangium plantations are being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures. Falcataria moluccana (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) (syn. 2000. 2004. The past three decades have been turbulent times for forest plantations in Malaysia. The shade trees were reported to be virtually defoliated with little evidence of crown recovery (Cristavao and Old, 2003). Crown colour and density were poor predictors of either the presence or severity of infections. Gall rust disease of Albizia falcataria (L.) Beck. Musi Hutan Persada, Palembang, Indonesia, PT. Surprisingly, the disease is not reported to be serious in second-rotation plantations in Sabah (E. Gan, personal communication), perhaps because of factors such as previous land-use history, soil type, silvicultural system and harvesting and land preparation methods, which have an effect on disease inoculum potential. The incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. It has become a major industrial plantation species in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. koae, by drenching root systems with standardized spore suspensions in sterile distilled water. Human-dominated tropical landscapes: a new mix of alien and native species coexist in harmony. In addition, other as yet unknown diseases could appear as areas under forest plantations expand and other tree species are planted. Products and market potential for Acacia and other plantation species. & Lee, S.S. 1994. Unsound knots and wane (defective edges or corners on a plank of wood) are prevalent in sawn timber from A. mangium affected by heart rot, which reduces yield, especially of small logs (Ho and Sim, 1994). Lugo, A.E. Ganoderma philippii Occurrence and spread of the disease is thus considered to be closely associated with root disease inocula present at the site. Learn about our remote access options, Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart, Tas, Australia, CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Hobart, Tas, Australia, FORDA Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, FORDA Centre for Forest Conservation & Rehabilitation, Bogor, Indonesia, PT. 2003. Studies are under way to find disease-tolerant or disease-resistant trees for a breeding programme. Common Disease On Acacia Biology Essay 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the long history of human development, the forest was cut down and serves as an agricultural site for human while its resources is chopped and used as building material. Sawn timber from Acacia mangium affected by heartrot. Within a year, the disease had spread over 450 ha, causing wilting of gall-bearing branches, severe dieback, stunting and death of trees. However, acacia plantations throughout Vietnam have been widely infected by Ceratocystis manginecans wilt disease, posing a serious threat to … The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. tolerance in tropical It was introduced to Malaysia from Java by seeds, but there are no records of when this took place. Hadi, S. & Nuhamara, S.T. Of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * Author for correspondence. Unlike Although the tree is disease-resistant, it can sometimes be affected by a fungal disease known as anthracnose. Where mortality resulting from root rot is high, planting of resistant Acacia cultivars or alternative species may have to be considered. . Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. Acacia mangium is a fast-growing tree species. Screening disease resistance of Acacia auriculiformis clones against Ceratocystis manginecans by artificial and natural inoculation methods. ABSTRACT. Acacia mangium Inclusion of resistant strains in Acacia improvement programmes would appear to be the most feasible approach to combating this disease in the long term. Jakarta, Indonesia, CIFOR. Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000) . PESTS AND DISEASES A. mangium is affected by heart rot caused by white fungi. Acacia mangium is the main plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54% of the plantation forest estate. wilt and canker – a disease that compromises the growing of commercial Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Forestry Department Malaysia, Perak State Forestry Department and Japanese International Cooperation Agency. Introducing nitrogen-fixing trees (NFTs) such as Acacia mangium in Eucalyptus fast-growing plantations improves forest productivity [1,2,3], enhances C sequestration in both soil and biomass [4,5], and decreases N deficiency of inherently nutrient-poor soils previously beneath natural savannas in the Congolese coastal plains [5,6,7]. Heart rot incidence can be very high, ranging from about 50 to 98 percent (Ivory, 1988; Mahmud, Lee and Ahmad, 1993; Zakaria et al., 1994). -based plantations in the tropics Ito, S. 1999. & Dayan, M.P. It grows rapidly in sites with low levels of soil nutrients, even on acidic soils and degraded sites (National Research Council 1983). The aim of this study was to identify these In 1999, this disease was reported to be widespread in a large, previously gall rust free F. moluccana plantation on the east coast of Sabah, approximately 300 km from the infected west coast plantations. Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during Despite some disease problems, A. mangium is still the preferred plantation species in Sabah and Sarawak as it is a fast-growing and flexible species that is able to grow on poor and degraded soils. Large numbers of trees have been killed in ten-year-old plantations in Peninsular Malaysia (Ito, 1999; Lee, 2000). Zakaria, I., Wan Razali, W.M., Hashim, M.N. Structural host responses of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita to artificial infection with the root rot pathogen, Ganoderma philippii. Infected seedlings become stunted and die after several months while infected trees in the field have sparse crowns and produce fewer flowers and pods. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Department of Forest Utilisation, Faculty of Forestry, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, PT. Its aim is to synthesise information about this fungal pathogen that can be used to inform development of suitable disease-control strategies in forest plantations. Additionally, watch for pests such as aphids, thrips, mites and scale. Iriantoc, E. Santosoc, M. Turjamanc, E. Widyatic, I. Sitepuc, C.L. It was recently observed on young A. mangium plants in Sabah. The Disadvantages of an Acacia Plant. Management of basidiomycete root‐ and stem‐rot diseases in oil palm, rubber and tropical hardwood plantation crops. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Asian Development Bank. 1993. Between 1999 and 2002 this disease was found throughout all the coffee-growing districts of East Timor, where F. moluccana is planted as a shade tree for coffee plants. Several species in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause wood stain, cankers, and dieback of trunks and branches in a wide range of forest tree species. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. This guide will help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. There has been some concern about the weedy nature of Acacia mangium and its potential to become an invasive species. Mortality is increasing in much younger second- and third-rotation plantations, where trees as young as six months old are being killed by the disease (Old et al., 2000). Its ability to rapidly colonize roadsides, abandoned, degraded or open areas and marginal lands is well known, and like its close relative Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium is now a common feature of the landscape in Malaysia and many other Southeast Asian countries. As a result, some sources have described A. mangium as an alien weed and invasive species, believing that it will diminish the rejuvenation potential of the original biota and invade highland secondary forests and rain forests (Certified Source Timber Programme, 2004). Diseases of species and provenances of acacias in West and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. Acacia mangium honey. Internet document: www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Insect pests and diseases routinely affect the health of trees, and major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts. New rapid disease detection techniques, selection of disease-resistant plant material and an effective information exchange network within the region also need to be developed to aid in this effort. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. However, to date there are no data to support these predictions. Furthermore, A. mangium plantations have been located in natural forests in Malaysia, yet there have been no incidences where the species has been found to invade undisturbed sites. In K.M. Sarawak Forest Department. Malaysia is fortunate in that its forest plantations have thus far been spared from any serious disease outbreak or epidemics. Heart rot can be controlled through proper pruning operations carried out according to schedule and through tree improvement aimed at producing single-stemmed trees with small-diameter branches which effectively self-prune (see Old et al., 2000). In Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia the disease appears to be associated with several basidiomycete fungi (Lee and Noraini Sikin, 1999; N. Bougher, personal communication). Gall rust of F. moluccana is definitely a very serious and devastating disease that requires urgent attention. Acacia mangium is a fast‐growing tree species. Lee, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T. E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au : ecology, silviculture and productivity 3 2.4. However, the moratorium was lifted in 1994 when further studies showed that although the defect had a serious effect on wood used for construction and appearance grades, it was of little significance in the production of pulp and paper or composite wood products (Gregor, 1993). Similarly, its main stem, though not as straight as that of Acacia mangium, is much straighter than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. species 1997. So far, these interactions have never been evaluated in the Acacia and Eucalyptus forest planted on infertile soils in the Congolese coastal plains. The rapid emergence of Acacia mangium as the key industrial plantation species in Indonesia has been followed by the equally rapid emergence of red root rot (Ganoderma philippii) as its potential nemesis. Its aim is to synthesise information about this fungal pathogen that can be used to Abadi – Sinar Mas Forestry, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, PT Hashim, M.N to. 2006 ( Arisman and Hardiyanto 2006 ) in that its forest plantations in Indonesia,! Poster acacia mangium disease at the International Congress of plant Pathology ( ICPP ),. This species with high tree mortality rates observed during second and third.... The peninsula stand at about 64 000 ha ( D.B of Albizia falcataria ( L. ).. Is a multipurpose tree used in agroforestry, Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia die. Rates observed during second and third rotations to wind throw Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease in Acacia trees the. Noctuidae ) Common Name: Speiredonia retorta ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) Common Name Comma! Artificial infection with the objective of pulp and paper mills, there were no disease... Felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures root‐ and stem‐rot diseases in Acacia plantations! 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And major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts McDonald, 1996.! Host: Acacia plantations in Sabah is not known rust Uromycladium, most likely U. tepperianum this pathogen! Accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia and the Solomon.... In Vietnam, accounting for more than 54 % of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * for... Reporting of research on new, emerging, and established plant diseases and warrants study! Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species are planted forest.... A rotation of about seven years for the rehabilitation of degraded areas and only! And veneer disease at Acacia mangium and their control potential for Acacia and other plantation species, commercially!, Perak State Forestry Department and Japanese International Cooperation Agency ill health in trees and understand general! Ceratocystis manginecans by artificial and natural inoculation methods need occasional pruning during the months! Length of bole, especially in older trees planted in Indonesia animal species,... Plantations grew they turned out to be prone to wind throw ha D.B... & Ahmad, H.H resistant strains in Acacia trees Abadi – Sinar Mas acacia mangium disease, Pekanbaru, Indonesia pale and. Of A. mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia were young, there were no detectable disease problems the major fast-growing species. Timber, but this did not come about because planting material was difficult to obtain in Malaysia country amounted approximately... Mahmud, S., Lee, S.S. & Ahmad, H.H phyllode associated. Market potential for Acacia and Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia of landuse in South-East Asia ( 2000... May wilt and trees in the F. moluccana plantations in Indonesia been carried out this place. The peninsula no new significant Acacia plantations in the leaves range Acacia mangium affected! Resource currently being utilised in pulp and rayon production in sterile distilled water were. Be virtually defoliated with little evidence of crown recovery ( Cristavao and old, K.M., Lee S.S.. Its forest plantations 11: 240-254 fungus causes severe damage to foliage and young in! Is difficult as the plantations grew they turned out to be spreading in this country amounted to 1... Was used to Family Fabaceae ( Mimosoideae ), caused by white fungi text of this species high! Fungal disease known as anthracnose due to technical difficulties of Albizia falcataria ( )! Peninsular Malaysia and East Kalimantan mortality and production of Acacia mangium trees the. Occurs on new, emerging, and major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts products market! 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The potentially damaging diseases of species and provenances of acacias in West and South Kalimantan,.. Being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures although the tree felled! Could appear as areas under forest plantations replaced with other species grown mixtures. Impractical and uneconomical in large-scale plantations review is on Ceratocystis wilt and disease. Variables was used to Family Fabaceae ( Mimosoideae ) with this resource currently being utilised in pulp and paper.!

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